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Gabriel Ofiesh, a founding father of the Military Model mentioned above. Inthe Drs. Esseffs created an eLearning course to enable participants to take the GL course online under the direction of Dr. Learning theories also play an important role in the design of instructional materials.
Theories such as behaviorismconstructivismsocial learning and cognitivism help shape and define the outcome of instructional materials. Motivation is defined as an internal drive that activates behavior and gives it direction. The term motivation theory is concerned with the process that describe why and how human behavior is activated and directed. John Keller  has devoted his career to researching and understanding motivation in instructional systems.
These decades of work constitute a major contribution to the instructional design field.
DICK & CAREY MODELI
First, by applying motivation theories systematically to design theory. The model is based on Tolman's and Lewin's expectancy-value theory, which presumes that people are motivated to learn if there is value in the knowledge presented i. The first 2 of 4 key components for motivating learners, attention, and relevance can be considered the backbone of the ARCS theory, the latter components relying upon the former.
Within each of these categories, John Keller has provided further sub-divisions of types of stimuli to grab attention. Grabbing attention is the most important part of the model because it initiates the motivation for the learners. Once learners are interested in a topic, they are willing to invest their time, pay attention, and find out more.
The Dick and Carey Model -
Relevance, according to Keller, must be established by using language and examples that the learners are familiar with. The three major strategies Keller presents are goal-oriented, motive matching, and familiarity. Like the Attention category, Keller divided the three major strategies into subcategories, which provide examples of how to make a lesson plan relevant to the learner. Learners will throw concepts to the wayside if their attention cannot be grabbed and sustained and if relevance is not conveyed.
The confidence ct of the ARCS model focuses on establishing positive expectations for achieving success among learners. The confidence level of learners is often correlated with motivation and the amount of effort put forth in reaching a performance objective. For this reason, it's important that learning design provides students with a method for estimating their probability of success.
This can be achieved in the form of a syllabus and grading policy, rubrics, or a time estimate to complete tasks. Additionally, confidence is built when positive reinforcement for personal achievements is given through timely, relevant feedback. Finally, learners must obtain some type of satisfaction or reward from a learning experience. This satisfaction can be from a sense of achievement, praise from a higher-up, or mere entertainment. Feedback and reinforcement are important elements and when learners appreciate the results, they will be motivated to learn.
Satisfaction is based upon motivation, which can be intrinsic or extrinsic. To keep learners satisfied, instruction should be designed to allow them to use their newly learned skills as soon as possible in as authentic a setting as possible.
Along with the motivational components Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction the ARCS model provides a process that can address motivational problems. This process has 4 phases Analysis, Design, Development, and Evaluation with 10 steps within the phases:. Evaluate and revise . Includes reviewing the description of the course, the instructor, and way of delivery the information.
Includes collecting the current skill level, attitudes towards the course, attitudes towards the teacher, attitudes towards the school.
This should help identify the motivational problem that needs to be addressed.
Dick and Carey Model Presentation by Hee-Sun Lee & Soo-Young Lee This model describes all the phases of an iterative process that starts by identifying instructional goals and ends with summative evaluation. This model is applicable as shown below. "The Dick/Carey/Carey model is the most comprehensive, clear, and conducive support tool to teach introductory instructional design courses. The fact that the model is laid out at the beginning and followed throughout the book guides and supports the learning process."Format: Paper. Dick and Carey's Model Dick and Carey's model is systematic in nature. The model is a procedural system including ten major process components (nine basic steps in an iterative cycle and a culminating evaluation of the effectiveness of the instruction).
Identifying positives of the current instructional material, as well as any problems. This allows the creation of assessment tools that align with the objectives.
Brainstorming possible tactics that could fill in the motivational gaps. Integrates, enhances, and sustains tactics from the list that fit the situation.
Integrate the tactic that was chosen from the list into the instruction. Select materials, modify to fit the situation and develop new materials. Obtain reactions from the learner and determine satisfaction level.
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Dick and carey
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The Dick and Carey Model includes the 5 step process Stage 1: Identify Instructional Goals Stage 2. Conduct Instructional Analysis Stage 3. Identify Entry Behaviors and Learner Characteristics Stage 4: Write Performance Objectives Stage 5. Develop Criterion-Referenced Test Items Stage 6. Apr 17, The Dick and Carey Model - Although there are several versions of ISD, the ADDIE model is perhaps the most popular in business and organizational environments, with the Dick and Carey model being the most popular model in schools and educational environments. Nov 03, Dick and Carey memandang desain pembelajaran sebagai sebuah sistem dan menganggap pembelajaran adalah proses yang sitematis. Menurut Dick and Carey bahwa pendekatan sistem selalu mengacu kepada tahapan umum sistem pengembangan pembelajaran (Instructional Systems Development/ISD). Komponen model pembelajaran dick and carey meliputi; pembelajar /5.
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